1. Lab goals
 Topics


Transistor (DC) bias conditions and circuit sensitivity to transistor parameter variations.

Rulesofthumb for designing a bias circuit to be insensitive to transistor variations.

Your task is to study the effect that transistor parameters have obtaining a robust circuit design. A robust circuit design is relatively not sensitive to the specific value of transistor parameters, especially the ones which vary widely (like β, I_{S}, and variations with temperature).
This study includes circuit analysis and examining the mathematical properties of the resulting equations, and building example circuits and measuring how the resulting bias conditions change when replacing the transistor.
2. References
 https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/semiconductors/chpt4/biasingcalculations/

Discussion of several biasing schemes and the equations resulting from circuit analysis.
3. Transistor parameters
Obtain 10 NPN transistors of the same model (2N3904
).
Use the LCRT4 semiconductior + LCR tester
to measure each transistor’s forward β_{F} and the V_{BE} at the measurement conditions.
Use small pliers to handle the transistors to avoid heating them with your fingers in order to make the measurements more consistent.
Remember that, for example, V_{BE} changes by 2 mV / °C.
Use the tester’s short manual LCRT4_semiconductortester_short.pdf on Google Drive to help compute the base current for each transistor under the measurement conditions. Note: the voltage between the + and  nodes is set to 5.0 V by a voltage regulator and the two lowvalue resistors are 680 Ω instead of the 700 Ω in Figure 1.1 (a) and (b).
Use this Google Sheet to record your data. Each group should use a different 100’s position digit for the transistor IDs (the N in the integer Nxx).
 [ ] Record the measurements from the transistor tester


Transistor ID number

Reported β_{F}

Reported V_{BE}

Calculated I_{B}

4. Measurements

Build the circuit of Bias circuit schematics (a) and measure V_{B}, V_{C}, and I_{C} for each of your 10 transistors.

Build the circuit of Bias circuit schematics (b) and measure V_{B}, V_{E}, V_{C}, and I_{C} for each of your 10 transistors.
5. References

[341notes] D. White, ECE 341 Class notes 2018 folder, https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=1hUN1Xicpr9tpCsL2937jfNaCxgpyLT3L

[341docs] D. White, ECE 341 reference documents folder, https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B5O5cSaA0tEQYVpaSnJxMGFrdHM

[AoE] P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2015. https://artofelectronics.net

[LAoE] T. Hayes, Learning the Art of Electronics: A HandsOn Lab Course, Cambridge University Press, 2016. https://learningtheartofelectronics.com

[LEC] Tony R. Kuphaldt, Lessons in Electric Circuits, Source version: https://www.ibiblio.org/kuphaldt/electricCircuits/, All About Circuits version: https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/

[CLbook] Michael F. Robbins, CircuitLab, Ultimate Electronics: Practical Circuit Design and Analysis, https://www.circuitlab.com/textbook/

[TCA] Alfred D. Gronner, Transistor Circuit Analysis, Simon & Schuster, 1970, https://archive.org/details/TransistorCircuitAnalysis

[] Neil Weste and David Harris, CMOS VLSI Design  A Circuit and Systems Perspective, 4th edition. AddisonWesley, 2011. http://pages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/index.html

[Guidebook] D. White, Guidebook for Electronics II. https://agnd.net/valpo/341/guidebook

[] H.K. Gummel, H.C. Poon, An Integral Charge Control Model of Bipolar Transistors. Bell System Technical Journal, 49: 5. MayJune 1970 pp 827852. https://archive.org/details/bstj495827

[ROHM] ROHM Semiconductor, Electronics Basics, http://www.rohm.com/web/global/en_index

[vishayeseries] Vishay, Standard Series Values in a Decade for Resistances and Capacitances, https://www.vishay.com/docs/28372/eseries.pdf